In this essay, we'll explore the primary fields in profiling and personality simulation:
- Criminal behavior profiling
- Litigation profiling
- Witness examination
- Jury selection
- Consumer behavior profiling
- Personality simulation
- Wargaming simulation
- Relationship compatibility simulation
ProfilingCriminal profiling provides investigators with a personality "snapshot" or typology which can aid in a suspect's identification and apprehension. The profiling process assists the investigator by reducing the large number of suspects to a discrete set with unique behavioral habits and personality characteristics.
Violent or aberrant crime scenes provide a wide spectrum of forensic evidence. In profiling and apprehending a serial criminal, the increasing number of offenses by an unknown perpetrator increases the total amount of physical and psychological crime scene evidence. Profilers view a crime scene as a classroom where the unknown perpetrator teaches investigators about himself. Often, however, the serial offender plans each crime scene as he learns what behaviors and evidence to include or omit.
A large number of fiction and non-fiction studies of FBI profiling have appeared in the last ten years:
- Novel: The Fifth Horseman a fictional account of personality simulation by Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre
- Novel and movie: The Silence of the Lambs
- Novel: Watch Me by A.J. Holt
- Novel: The Riverman by Bob Keppel
- TV series: Profiler
- TV series: Millennium
The FBI's Behavioral Sciences Unit in Quantico, Va., which was earlier headed by John Douglas, does more than 1,000 profiles a year.
The criminal profiler should be cross-trained in several disciplines:
- Psychology: the study of individual behavior
- Sociology: the study of group behavior
- Criminalistics: the scientific study of recognition, collection and preservation of physical evidence as it relates to the law
- Forensic pathology: a branch of medicine that applies the principles and knowledge of the medical sciences to problems in the field of law
Vernon Geberth, in his book, Practical Homicide Investigation, indicates that the following items are necessary to create a profile:
1. Complete crime scene photographs
2. Neighborhood racial, ethnic and social data
3. Complete medical examiner's autopsy protocol
4. Map of the victim's travels prior to death/attack/kidnapping
5. Complete investigation report of the incident
6. Complete background of the victim (Victimology)
Litigation ProfilingProfiling is used in connection with examining witnesses and selecting juries. In State of Oregon v. Lawson, for example, the defense tried to introduce expert testimony stating that their client, Mr. Lawson, did not match the profile of a sex offender, and by extension of that logic could not therefore be one. The court in that case found that "Whether it is labeled a 'syndrome' or a 'profile', the type of evidence…involves comparing an individual's behavior with the behavior of others in similar circumstances who have been studied in the past."
Defense and prosecution attorneys use profiling experts to assist them in selecting a specific kind of juror for a case. If the case, for example, involves a male serial rapist, then the prosecution will ordinarily attempt to select young and middle-aged women for the jury, on the theory that these women will identify with the female victim and judge the defendant more harshly.
Consumer ProfilingOne of the current personal-rights battlefields concerns how much consumer behavior data should be made available to corporations. Every time you purchase an item on your credit card--whether it is a video rental, an item of clothing, an automobile, a night in a hotel, a vacation trip, whatever--that data becomes available for creating a profile on you. If you don't turn off the "cookie" feature on your Internet browser, every Web site you visit is available to companies developing profiles on your buying behavior.
Personality SimulationWhile serving as Head of the Artificial Intelligence Department at the U.S. Army War College for several years, and while teaching graduate courses in expert systems at several California universities, I explored and developed personality simulation systems, an advanced technology used in military war games, FBI profiling, political campaigning, propaganda, and advertising.
These profiling or personallity simulation systems:
This may sound like science fiction or Dr. Frankenstein's laboratory, but it is the actual state of the technology in personality simulation and control.
- Capture a person's mental components: actions, beliefs, ideas, attitudes, purchasing patterns, habits, etc.
- Translate these into a computer system: a program which prioritizes and relates the various elements to an overall purpose
- Example 1: a consumer profile which gives a certain weight to specific kinds of purchases the person makes and predicts what products they would buy in the future
- Example 2: a criminal behavior profile based on prior indictments or convictions used to predict future criminal activity
- Use the system to influence and control that person's ideas and behavior
- Example 1: TV ads based on the profile developed from the consumer's purchasing patterns
- Example 2: military counterintelligence activities based on a profile of the enemy's leadership
Personality simulation falls within the domain of artificial intelligence. From its inception, artificial intelligence (AI) has been primarily concerned with developing systems which simulate human behavior for the purpose of controlling such behavior.
In 1950, a British computer scientist, Alan Turing, devised a test to prove whether or not a computer system displayed intelligence. It is now called the Turing Indistinguishability Test:
Place a computerized personality simulation system in one room and Person A in another
If Person B communicates with each room and the input and output from each room is indistinguishable as being from a computer system or a real person, then the computer system is intelligent.
Unfortunately, such theorizing in artificial intelligence has misled some people to conjecture that a computer system could be developed which actually carried out the human function of thinking. If you examine the definitions of "think" and "intelligence," it's clear that only a human with a mind (more than a physical brain) can think and evince intelligence.
- To form or have in the mind - he thinks deep thoughts
- To have as an intention - think to return early
- To have as an opinion - think it to be so
- To regard as: consider - think the rule unfair
- To reflect on: ponder - think the matter over
- To determine by reflection - think what to do next
- To call to mind: remember - he never thinks to ask how we do
- To devise by thinking - think up a plan to escape
- To have as an expectation: anticipate - we didn't think we'd have any trouble
- To center one's thoughts on - talks and thinks business
- To form a mental picture of - think of a three-legged giraffe
- To subject to the processes of logical thought - think things out
- To exercise the powers of judgment, conception, or inference: reason - think for yourself
- To have or call to mind a thought - think about the current economy
- To have the mind engaged in reflection: meditate - think of pleasant things
- To consider the suitability - they're thinking of him for president
- To have a view or opinion: regard - thinks of himself as a poet
- To have concern - a man must think first of his family
- Expect, suspect - better than he thinks possible
Each year, in Britain and in the U.S., there are contests to determine if a computer program can fool human judges into thinking that the program is human. As indicated above, this is a chimera, since a program (created by a human) could never, by definition, evince genuine intelligence. However, on June 8, 2014, The Telegraph, a British newspaper, announced: "Computer passes 'Turing Test' for the first time after convincing users it is human." The program, named Eugene Goostman, an artificial intelligence program developed to simulate a 13-year-old Ukrainian boy, duped 33% of the judges into believing that it was human at the Royal Society in London.
- The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations: reason
- The skilled use of reason
- The ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (as tests)
- Mental acuteness: shrewdness
- An intelligent entity - an alien intelligence
- Intelligent minds or mind - cosmic intelligence
- The act of understanding: comprehension
- Information, news
- Information concerning an enemy or possible enemy or an area
- An agency engaged in obtaining such information
- Intelligence quotient: a number used to express the apparent
My personal take on this event is that instead of computer programs becoming more "intelligent," people in general, and the judges at the British Royal Society in particular, have become less intelligent.
One of the AI researchers the U.S. Department of Defense funded over many years was a Freudian psychiatrist at Stanford University, Kenneth J. Colby. He developed computer systems to simulate the mind for the express purpose of influencing and controlling the behavior of his psychiatric patients.
Colby developed three models of the human personality over many years of research:
- Model of a neurotic woman suffering from anxiety in relation to men
- Artificial belief system - a "child brain"
- Model of paranoid processes - which later was nicknamed Parry
Colby's models of the human mind were based on these principles:
These are a few of the startling implications of Colby's models:
- The credibility of a belief is based on the credibility of its source
- Human personalities are based on belief systems concerning significant persons, including the self
- Every psychological concept has specific significance to the person: e.g. father, love
- Input from others is evaluated and "colored" by mental patterns such as fear or anger
- A human's mind changes with inner conflict, transforming beliefs to fit into an overall pattern
It's necessary for us to realize that the components of most personalities can be captured and developed into a complete simulation of our thinking and feeling processes. That simulation can then be used to manipulate us in any way the artificial intelligence technician, political operative, or communicator chooses. Not only is this possible, but it's already taking place, as we'll see below.
- By capturing a person's belief structures we can control him or her
- Unenlightened human minds are combinations of infantile beliefs and emotional patterns
- Unenlightened human minds can be simulated by a computerized system
- Through such systems, unenlightened people can be programmed and controlled
When people first encounter this idea of mind control through computer simulation, they usually try to dodge the issue with an unthinking denial. They protest:
- Don't humans change too much to be controllable?
Answer: A sophisticated computerized personality simulation system would include modifications in its profile of the person relative to the ways the individual changes.
- How could someone control my behavior when I don't even know what my beliefs are myself?
Answer: An AI knowledge engineer can capture the major elements of your personality, including the fact that you may not know what you believe.
- Isn't this a bit too much in the science-fiction realm?
Answer: In 1971 an AI system developed by Kenneth Colby was thought to have passed the Turing Test. Members of the American Psychiatric Association could not distinguish between dialogue with actual mildly paranoid patients and dialogue with Colby's system.
Few people today, including AI researchers, realize that Colby's system was thought to have passed the Turing Indistinguishibiligy Test, proving that his system contained what was deemed to be "demonstrable intelligence." And even more significant, few today realize that Colby's system - and current systems based on the same principles - are predicting and CONTROLLING human behavior.
- But that was in the past. Surely this kind of thing is not going on now is it?
Answer: It's going on all the time and growing in power. Personality simulation systems are being used to create political campaigns which apply voter profiles to control their voting behavior. TV commercials and programs use personality simulation to profile viewers to control their purchasing and viewing behaviors.
- Are there recent studies of this mind-control technology?
- Roland Perry's 1984 book, The Programming of the President: the Hidden Power of the Computer in World Politics Today, reveals how all the recent presidential election campaigns have used this technology to control voter behavior.
- Strategic Personality Simulation: A New Strategic Concept the author's book which was published by the U.S. Army War College