Evolution's Next Step

"Organs come into being as a result of the need for specific organs (Rumi). The human being's organism is producing a new complex of organs in response to such a need." 1




Evolution's Process

Spiritual Evolution


            Humans (homo sapiens) have evolved from lower life-forms primarily because of intelligence.

"An animal displays intelligence when he modifies his behaviour on the basis of valid inference from evidence. . .

"The main role of creative intellect lies in practical invention. 'Invention' here is being used broadly to mean acts of intelligent discovery by which an animal comes up with new ways of doing things. Thus it includes not only, say, the fabrication of new tools or the putting of existing objects to new use but also the discovery of new behavioural strategies, new ways of using the resources of one's own body."

Nicholas Humphrey,
"The Social Function of Intellect," 1976

The Three Dimensions of Evolution

     We must keep in mind that there are three different dimensions of evolution:
  • Ordinary biological evolution: e.g. the evolution from homo erectus to homo sapiens

  • Psycho-social evolution: intelligence, reason, understanding, language, meaning, culture

  • Spiritual evolution (explicated below)
      Humans have evolved physically through the intelligent development of our machine-building capabilities. A machine is a constructed device which transforms one form of energy into another, decreasing entropy.

      Tools, language, and political-economic systems are examples of machines. 2  Human social organizations are machines in which the components are living beings. Machines have enhanced human evolution by decreasing entropy in their concepts, actions, and organizations, increasing the amount of useful energy at our disposal.

     Evolution, of whatever kind and at whatever level, involves simpler structures organizing into more complex structures: particles evolving into atoms, atoms evolving into systems such as animals, plants, galaxies, stars and planets.

The Capitalist Definition of Machines

      The definitions of "machine," "invention," and "tool," above, are taken from standard dictionaries and involve a discernible capitalist bias. For example, three of the definitions of machine are:

  • "A system or device for doing work"

  • "An intricate natural system or organism, such as the human body"

  • "A person who acts in a rigid, mechanical, or unconscious manner"

      Capitalists see workers as nothing more than physical systems for doing work, therefore the esthetic, emotional, intellectual, or spiritual dimensions of workers are ignored. Yet capitalists like to have it both ways: when it comes to defining such a machine as the "free market," this machine is said to contain an "invisible hand"--that is an element of human consciousness--that controls the market to act for the benefit of all people (including workers).

      That there is no such delusory "invisible hand" is clearly seen in the current collapse of the entire capitalist economic system that has resulted in the plundering of taxpayer money by predators: banks and other financial looters.

     Humans are conditioned to believe that the course of human life (including human evolution) is directed by political-economic rulers. Such an idea couldn't be more incorrect.

      Had political-economic rulers directed humankind's destiny throughout history, mankind would by now be extinct!

     In past eras--and clearly at the present time--the trend in mankind's experience is that ignorant but cunning rulers are destroying physical, mental, and social systems through capitalist egomania. This is resulting in the impossibility of new concepts and inventions being created or transmitted through culture.

      The present rulers are literally sub-human; they do not have the intellectual and moral capabilities to lead society in a productive and positive direction. They are currently self-destructing, as the outcome of their political-economic-social depravity catches up with them.
     As the insane ruling cabal self-destructs, it is pulling down the workers of the world with it to annihilation. We now see fascist austerity measures and police state tactics being imposed throughout the capitalist world.

"The job of politicians and CEOs is to look very much like human beings. But they are peculiarly constrained by their public roles. It doesn't really matter whether leaders are personally moral or not, because in their public lives they're constrained from acting with the kind of compassion and reason we associate with the idea of being fully human. Their highest priority must at all times be the defense of profits, to which logic and morality are always without question subordinated. . . Where decency threatens profits, our leaders have no choice but to abandon their humanity as if it did not exist, or to risk disappearing from public view."

David Edwards speaking to Derrick Jensen, The Culture of Make Believe

The Supra-Human to the Rescue!

      There is a "type" 3 of homo sapiens that possesses supra-human capabilities and guides human destiny, rescuing humankind from destruction at the hand of demonic rulers. Supra-humans develop through their initiation into the Perennial Tradition (e.g. Hermes, Pythagoras, Plato, Jesus, Boethius, Rumi). Had it not been for supra-humans as well as extraordinary humans (e.g. Patrick Henry, Abraham Lincoln, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Martin Luther King), the human race would long ago have disappeared into oblivion.

     Ordinary physical evolution possesses these distinguishing characteristics:

  • Each evolving system incorporates all the properties and information of its subsystems plus certain new properties and information of its own design. The new properties and information are epiphenomena of the new higher-order self-creating system--autopoiesis. 4

  • Each system is composed of a central organizing nucleus with simpler interdependent subsystems in the periphery, for example, cells and their nuclei, humans and the brain, human societies and their central governments

  • Each time a new level of self-creation (autopoiesis) evolves, a new dimension of complexity occurs: nucleons becoming atoms, atoms becoming molecules, molecules becoming bacteria, bacteria becoming nucleated cells, cells becoming metazoa, metazoa becoming humans, humans becoming supra-humans.

The Evolution of Intelligent Man (Homo Sapiens)

      Modern man's advanced development began with the appearance of homo sapiens approximately 100,000 years ago, the first creatures who, through their development of the tools of reason and language, were capable of discerning understanding. The appearance of intelligent man appears to have been as a result of the human species developing specific capabilities:

  • The ability to build and operate machines

  • The ability to reason: think for oneself, search for and discover evidence, test hypotheses, arrive at tentative conclusions, and gain understanding

      The word "understanding" symbolizes a definite experience, an activity beyond inner intellectual theorizing or imagining, just as a note on a score stands for a palpable musical tone. Genuine understanding can be acquired only by actual participation in the reality. In activity, in function, ideas and concepts become embodied in reality. As we function in the external world, we remove ideas and concepts from the category of symbols suggesting truth into the category of things conducting truth.

      Early in humankind's physical evolution we began to store mental and social information: how to build and use machines. This kind of knowledge has to be learned after birth, it is not instinctual or innate--no hominid is born knowing how to build any machine. With the development of language, this information could be passed from one generation to the next. Beyond the capability of building and using machines, the extraordinary power of invention was the essential mutation which made a new type of psychosocial evolution possible.

     "All animals gain a certain wisdom with age and experience, but the experience of one ape does not profit another. Learning among animals below man is individual, not co-operative and cumulative."

James Harvey Robinson. (1921), The Mind in the Making

      An invention is a new machine which can increase the "fitness" of a particular species. "Fitness" refers, in physical evolution, to a species' capability of producing progeny. Mentally, "fitness" means the ability to reason in achieving understanding. In spiritual evolution, "fitness" means the capability of understanding higher knowledge: humankind's essence as an expression of Higher Being.

      Prior to homo sapiens, members of the homo habilis and homo erectus strains had trained themselves in such skills as fire-making, hunting, shelter-building, and food gathering. But to them, human experience was merely a series of events without long-term significance. With humankind's development of language and reason it became possible to pass down one generation's accumulated understanding to the next generation, to create what we now call a culture.

     Homo sapiens' evolution has been almost entirely cultural, not biological. In fact, it appears that we are somewhat degenerating biologically. The main process of bipedal primate mammal (hominid) physical evolution has been the increasing ability to create and use machines. The homo sapiens species has carried the main trend of machine development to its logical conclusion: we are becoming increasingly dependent on machines.

     Homo sapiens populations have evolved in a unique manner: through psychosocial adaptation, that is, through constantly developing mental powers and organizational systems. We have no evidence that any other animal group has ever evolved in this same way.

     A number of astounding mutations have taken place within the homo sapiens species, physical, mental, and spiritual. The primary physical mutation is the capability of invention. Mentally, the outstanding mutational adaptation has been reasoning to the point of understanding. The primary spiritual mutation is inspiration.

     When homo sapiens tribes invented language, they represented events and objects by written and spoken signs and gestures, which they understood to have meaning, that is, they signified some entity such as a person, animal, plant, place, thing, substance, quality, idea, action, or state.

      A sign, such as the word, "fire," could be communicated from one person to another. Now humans could not only see, feel, and make fire, for example, but understand its significance: warmth, cooking, protection from predators, sterilization, and destruction.

     With the development of language, the communication of meaning began. Now, meanings could be transmitted from one person to another, one generation to another.

The Magic of Meaning

      Meaning is truly a magical element. Perhaps the best way to grasp the mystery of meaning is by thoughtfully viewing the movie "The Miracle Worker," the story of the early life of Helen Keller when she discovered

Helen Keller      As a young blind and deaf child, Helen lived much like an animal, rushing from one sensation to another. Within a month after becoming Helen's teacher, Anne Mansfield Sullivan was able to impart the gift of language to her. The awakening to meaning, as demonstrated in the film, was the event which made it possible for Helen to begin understanding instead of simply repeating what Anne was teaching her. Helen had been trained to repeat the word "water," but it wasn't until she combined the experience of feeling water and trying to communicate the word "water" simultaneously, that Helen gained the magical gift of meaning--and hence language and understanding.

     Up to that point, Helen had been like a well-trained animal, memorizing words, communicating them, and receiving praise from Anne. But now, suddenly, it came to her! The word "water" actually referred to, pointed to, meant this marvelous liquid reality that ran through her fingers.

     If we look discerningly at children learning to read and write, we can perceive the magic of language:

  • First, children must learn to form sounds and recognize parts of the written alphabet

  • Next, they must learn to form words and sentences vocally and in writing

  • Then they must learn to recognize the meanings contained and conveyed in vocal and written words

  • And if they are fortunate enough to have a teacher with a higher understanding, they learn:

    • The difference between the common (socially normative) meaning of words and the higher meanings of words (for example, the common meaning of "personal freedom" and the higher meaning)

    • How language can inspire (a very advanced knowledge)

Devolution: How Human Intelligence Is Being Destroyed

Alexander Graham Bell       Humans produce inventions by rearranging the physical, mental, and social environment into new systems which result in new and more effective ways of acting and thinking. Until recently, the benefits of invention were dispersed throughout most of the human species. The ability to invent and pass on the knowledge of inventions to the next generation was the major direction of physical, mental, and social evolutionary change--until around the middle of the twentieth century.

      At that point in human history the demonic cabal, which attained world economic, political, and military dominance in the first decades of the twentieth century, initiated a planned, systematic annihilation of physical, mental, and social systems for the purpose of creating a mindless, compliant mass of people resigned to physical and mental slavery: 5

  1. The destruction of the American educational system--the same destruction replicated in other countries throughout the world

  2. The deliberate development of a mindless citizenry which can be manipulated by brainwashing and propaganda

  3. The destruction of the political and moral structures on which America was built and the substitution of a new reactionary capitalist ideology:

     The terrifying result of this cabal's destruction of our culture is that the mental capability of masses of humans does not allow for cultural knowledge to be passed on from one generation to another. Within the last several generations, critical knowledge of our culture has not been transferred. The ignorance of the current masses is particularly calamitous in the areas of social knowledge, leading to an easily manipulable citizenry.

     The critical inventions which have been responsible for humankind's physical evolution include: tools, language, government, agriculture, science, mathematics, computers, radios, etc. The continued manufacture and improvement of such inventions requires an educated workforce.

     The deranged cabal, which now rules the political-economic systems throughout the world, deludes itself into believing that it can destroy people's minds and still have a functioning civilization. The cabal's indiscriminate destruction of mental and social capabilities is inevitably leading to the total breakdown of our society.

     The machines humankind has developed become extensions and amplifiers of our bodies and serve the same functions as the more specialized organs in other species. Airplanes enable us to fly faster and farther than any bird, telescopes and microscopes enable us to see better than our unaided eyes, language enables us to process, store, and exchange information in a way which is analogous to the nervous system of our body. This linguistic capability is further amplified by computers and telecommunication systems. Humanity is forming an interdependent relationship with these machines. Its knowledge of and use of these machines depend on effective education--the transmission of knowledge from one generation to the next.

     The physical essence of human culture is a unified whole of persons, machines, and knowledge. No part can survive without the others. Human civilization is a collective reality which transcends our biological limitations. If you remove mind (reason and awareness) from human society it will soon self-destruct. A discerning examination of current history discloses that this is now rapidly happening.

The Emergence of the Sub-Human

     In my recently published book, The Perennial Tradition, I outline Plato's heroic struggle to wrest humankind from the destructive grasp of the oral mythological tradition (Homer and the dramatists) and instill in humans the capability of reasoning. 6

"Once it is accepted that the oral situation had persisted through the fifth century, one faces the conclusion that there would also persist what one may call an oral state of mind as well; a mode of consciousness so to speak, and . . . a vocabulary and syntax, which were not that of a literate bookish culture. And once one admits this and admits that the oral state of mind would show a time lag so that it persisted into a new epoch when the technology of communication had changed, it becomes understandable that the oral state of mind is still for Plato the main enemy."

Havelock, Eric A. Preface to Plato

     Study of Plato's struggle to replace the "oral state of mind" with a rational mind-set is particularly timely because the twenty-first century is experiencing precisely the opposite trend: the deliberate destruction of the rational mind-set and devolution to the "oral state of mind." Whereas Plato assisted humans to evolve from the oral, non-rational stage to the rational, literate stage, we are presently seeing the devolution from the rational, literate level of human development back to the pre-literate, oral, non-rational level.

      In the new "oral tradition" that has overwhelmed our culture, we have two new icons: Trump, the thug, and a new Homer, Homer Simpson. These two creatures serve as clear representations of the current "greed-is-good," anti-mind, people-are-stupid, whatever-you-can-get-away-with-is-okay sub-human. 7

     Plato saw the oral, non-literate state of consciousness as a crippling and poisoning of the mind, the creation of a false "reality" which individuals are made to believe in. In our current TV-movie-pop-music culture a total counterfeit "reality" is created, people do not see what is really going on--only what the capitalist media tells them is happening.

      This is why Homer Simpson is a revealing icon for the contemporary retrogression to a state of "exuberant ignorance." Homer is not only a TV character--one step from reality, he is also a cartoon character--another step removed. The fact that people watch this cartoon character means that they have become entranced by a shadow on Plato's cave, a phantom specter. They are losing any taste for genuine reality.

"When a population becomes distracted by trivia, when cultural life is redefined as a perpetual round of entertainments, when serious public conversation becomes a form of baby-talk, when, in short, a people become an audience and their public business a vaudeville act, then a nation finds itself at risk: culture-death is a clear possibility."

Neil Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death

     Trump the mobster is an embarrassment to any thinking American. His press conferences are total shams: being tossed softball questions and his non-answers and inane posturings. He asserts falsehoods openly as unquestioned truth, and no member of the press has the courage to call him on any of his barefaced lies. The fact that the American people aren't rising up and demanding the impeachment of this sub-human is sad proof that the minds of many have been destroyed by the demonic cabal's mis-education, brainwashing, and propaganda.

Counterfeit Reality

      We must understand that the "reality" now being presented to our senses and our minds is a totally counterfeit one, in several meanings of the term "counterfeit:"

   If you want to see how the concept of evolution is now being degraded and perverted by a group of capitalist pseudo-gurus--and if you're willing to pay $997 for their scam, go HERE.

Plato's Conquest of Counterfeit Reality

     Plato clearly recognized that man's evolutionary advancement requires that we come out of the primitive mind-set, comprehend the counterfeit reality that is being pushed as real, and gain the capabilities of rational thought and self-consciousness--the ability to see what's really going on in the world and in our own minds. Plato had seen first hand the power of a destructive burlesque of Socrates which helped to form prejudices based entirely on lies, leading to Socrates' execution by the state. Little wonder that Plato feared the corrupting influence of mindlessness on society!

 Evolution and Subsequent Devolution of Ordinary Humans
Man's Achieve-
ment of Language
The Oral Frame
of Mind
Man's Achieve-
ment of Reason
to Oral
Frame of
Back to the Stone Age

     In Homo Sapiens' early struggle for survival against the forces of nature and man-killing predators, violence was a legitimate response. Unfortunately, most humans have continued to use physical and psychological violence in our new environment where this is completely counterproductive. Physical evolution isn't designed to produce moral beings. It is a blind force, a mechanism of competitive warfare geared only for survival.

     The Nazi "experiment" in Germany proved that human cunning can be used to build exceptionally powerful systems of mass destruction. Nazi scientists, for example, had already produced jet airplanes before Germany's defeat in World War II. But the harnessing of human capability exclusively for purposes of destruction and imperialistic conquest also bring with it the sure decimation of intelligence. The Nazi leaders were not intelligent enough to use their resources in an ultimately effective manner. The same is the case with the present cabal and its puppet-leaders.

     A violence-based society attempts to destroy all spiritual values: art, compassion, intelligence, creativity, community. A sub-human cabal is forcing people to concentrate our machine-development capabilities to build weapons of destruction. That branch of human evolution has reached the point of no return--leading to the ultimate devolution of humankind. The twentieth century was the bloodiest in human history.

     Humankind's spiritual evolution has included social inventions such as constitutions, bills of rights, judicial systems, the Platonic process of dialectic, and ethical principles. These remain a part of our human heritage which can be passed down to future generations, no matter how much they may fail to understand them. If modern humans are to evolve, it must be in terms of our mental and spiritual capabilities. We must put our tendencies toward violence behind us and develop moral systems by which to live in peace and we must replace the murderous capitalist system with a commonwealth polity for the benefit of all.

     If we look exclusively at humankind's physical evolution, we discover a very bleak picture. But we must remind ourselves that humankind's evolution involves both our physical and spiritual development and that there are universal forces at work guiding our evolution in a positive direction.

"I am building my expectation of a new phase in human affairs upon the belief that there is a profoundly serious minority in the mass of our generally indifferent species. I cannot understand the existence of any of the great religions, I cannot explain any fine and grave constructive process in history, unless there is such a serious minority amidst our confusions. They are the Salt of the Earth, these people capable of devotion and of living lives for remote and mighty ends."

H. G. Wells

The Next Step in Human Evolution: the Supra-Human

     Though ordinary humans are rapidly losing the ability to understand reality, a small contemporary group is accessing supernormal knowledge through portals into Higher Consciousness. They are making knowledge available about what is actually going on in the world--beyond what the demonic cabal's media lies say is going on. And, of critical importance, they are preserving higher knowledge in books and Web sites which will be available when conditions have degenerated to the point where a rudely awakened mass of people will suddenly say: "How can we get out of this intolerable situation? What knowledge do we need to re-build a sane and progressive world?"

      Mankind's spiritual--and physical--evolution has been guided by seers such as Hermes, Plato, Jesus, Rumi, Francis of Assisi, and Shakespeare.

"There exists a family sprung from, living among, but scarcely forming a part of ordinary humanity, whose members are spread abroad throughout the advanced races of mankind and throughout the last forty centuries of the world's history.

"The trait that distinguishes these people from other men is this: Their spiritual eyes have been opened and they have seen. The better known members of this group who, were they collected together, could be accommodated all at one time in a modern drawing-room, have created all the great modern religions, beginning with Taoism and Buddhism, and speaking generally, have created, through religion and literature, modern civilization. Not that they have contributed any large numerical proportion of the books which have been written, but that they have produced the few books which have inspired the larger number of all that have been written in modern times. These men dominate the last twenty-five, especially the last five, centuries as stars of the first magnitude dominate the midnight sky.

"A man is identified as a member of this family by the fact that at a certain age he has passed through a new birth and risen to a higher spiritual plane. The reality of the new birth is demonstrated by the subjective light and other phenomena. The object of the present volume is to teach others what little the writer himself has been able to learn of the spiritual status of this new race. "

Richard Maurice Bucke, Cosmic Consciousness, 1901

     We must distinguish two different strains or "types" 2 within the human species:
  • Ordinary human beings within a culture

  • Human beings who have undergone a spiritual transformation through initiation into a Higher Consciousness and are harbingers of the evolutionary Supra-Human

     Supra-Humans (Clement of Alexandria referred to them as "True Gnostics") are not just superficially different in degree from ordinary humans; they are a different "type" altogether. They represent a distinct higher level of being within the Man (Homo) genus and the homo sapiens species--the new evolutionary strain that is now emerging. They are distinguished from ordinary homo sapiens by their:

  • Achievement of a higher understanding

  • Experience of a spiritual transformation

  • Ability to live in both the terrestrial and the spiritual worlds simultaneously

     Outwardly, these supra-humans appear the same as ordinary human beings; the difference is internal and spiritual and can only be discerned by members of the same "type." Supra-humans are confluently active in a higher consciousness, co-conscious with one another in a super-human intelligence.

     In each era of human history, adepts in the Higher Consciousness have made exoteric knowledge available to the people in general to enhance their evolutionary development. This knowledge has served as the basis for periodic social advancement, as in Pythagoras' cultural center at Croton, Plato's Academy in Athens, the Neo-Platonic center in Alexandria, and the seventeenth and eighteenth century Enlightenment in Europe and America. To specific students, they have taught the esoteric knowledge of spiritual and cultural regeneration.

      There is now present an entirely new factor in human evolution which began about ten thousand years ago. Whereas up to that time, human evolution had been primarily powered by unconscious physical and social stimuli, it is now possible for human evolution to be advanced through conscious effort.

     "Sufis believe that, expressed in one way, humanity is evolving to a certain destiny. We are all taking part in that evolution. Organs come into being as a result of the need for specific organs (Rumi). The human being's organism is producing a new complex of organs in response to such a need. In this age of the transcending of time and space, the complex of organs is concerned with the transcending of time and space. What ordinary people regard as sporadic and occasional bursts of telepathic or prophetic power are seen by the Sufi as nothing less than the first stirrings of these same organs. The difference between all evolution up to date and the present need for evolution is that for the past ten thousand years or so we have been given the possibility of a conscious evolution. So essential is this more rarefied evolution that our future depends upon it." 8

         The new supra-humans compose a race of adventurers, dwelling invisibly among mankind, who have evolved to the point of being able to deliberately and actively return to the divine Fount of Reality. They have attained Being, union with the One, and teach these mysteries to authentic seekers. Because of this, they have a unique importance for the evolution of the human race in revealing humankind's full potential and how this potential can be realized.

          "When goodness grows weak,
          When evil increases,
          I make myself a body.

          In every age I come back
          To deliver the holy,
          To destroy the sin of the sinner,
          To establish righteousness."

                    Bhagavad Gita

     This new "type" of person has discovered that humans are--in their essence--expressions of the One Higher Being. The being of humankind is a manifestation of the Universal Being and our evolution is the unfolding and realization of this Everlasting Spirit. Since all humans "live and move and have our being" in this Eternal Mind, we evolve by gaining a progressively creative and discerning understanding of this Universal Spirit.

"There is really developing above us another hominisation, a collective one of the whole species, and it is quite natural to observe, parallel with the socialization of humanity, the same psycho-biological properties rising upwards on the earth that the individual step to reflection originally produced.  . . .

"This second phase of hominisation is to be conceived of as the 'spirit of the earth,' the central element of the mind of a sentient planet. We are faced with a harmonized collectivity of consciousnesses equivalent to a sort of super-consciousness.

Teilhard De Chardin, Phenomenon of Man

     Advanced humans are realizing in their own lives and then teaching others how to become co-conscious with one another in a super-human Intelligence. Whatever is known within this super-consciousness is known at all points. Social evolution involves learning to create institutions which provide for the development of each individual to the limit of our potential.

"We lie in the lap of immense intelligence, which makes us receivers of its truth and organs of its activity. When we discern justice, when we discern truth, we do nothing of ourselves, but allow a passage to its beams."

Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Self-Reliance"

     Instead of accepting the view of human society which the ruling cabal tries to force on us--that we are all isolated egos struggling against all other egos--we can develop the understanding that we are all part of a greater whole. As we gain a more discerning understanding of our unity within the Universal Mind, our evolution comprises the manifestation of this understanding in mental and physical forms. Evolution is the process of Higher Intelligence manifesting itself in its production of self-conscious life.

     Humans possess the image of the Higher Consciousness in which they have their own being: self-awareness, autonomy, and the power to create through the manifestation of their thoughts. Humankind is presently suffering because it has allowed its thoughts to degenerate to egomania, the struggle of each against all others, and the view that the highest values are wealth and fame.

     The only way for a Higher Being to evolve spontaneous individuals is to allow them to manifest whatever ideas they receive through inspiration or create and awaken to their own ultimate reality. So humans are created with the possibility of freedom and allowed to discover themselves. What we discover is that the universe is a government of law: we reap what we sow; wrong acts are their own punishment and right acts are their own reward.

     We discover that, contrary to the prevailing myth that earthly rulers control human destiny, Higher Being has established Laws whereby we experience what we manifest. Higher Mind is guiding our progressive development of understanding, compassion for fellow-humans, and the ability to enter into an inviolable super-consciousness.

"There is a continuum of cosmic consciousness against which our individuality builds but accidental fences, and into which our several minds plunge as into a mother sea."

William James A Pluralistic Universe


1 Idries Shah, The Sufis, 1964

2 Wasps, ants, and bees build complex nests which represent a community machine. Beavers build complex systems of ecological control with their dams, canals, and partially submerged dwelling places.

3 I am using the word "type" in a very specific manner, referring to "the general form, character, or structure distinguishing a particular kind, group, or class of beings or objects; hence, a pattern or model after which something is made." [Oxford English Dictionary]

4 Autopoiesis literally means "self-production" (from the Greek: auto for self- and poiesis for creation or production) and expresses a fundamental complementarity between structure and function. More precisely, the term refers to the dynamics of non-equilibrium structures; that is, organized states (sometimes also called dissipative structures) that remain stable for long periods of time despite matter and energy continually flowing through them.

5 See the essay on the new slavery.

6 See The Perennial Tradition, Chapter Seven, "Language and Human Evolution"

7 To hear sub-humans in real life, just go to any movie which celebrates murderers or destroyers of any kind (e.g. the movie "Analyze This"). Listen carefully to the laughter of the audience at the senseless killing of human beings. This laughter is literally sub-human, sounding precisely like the grunts, snorts, and bellows of apes.

8 Idries Shah, The Sufis

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