Part VII: The Moneychangers - Secrets of the Temple 
by Douglas V. Gnazzo

November 30, 2004


Nelson Aldrich was financially well off when he left the wholesale grocery business. He then turned his attention to the political arena. Election to the United States Senate quickly followed. Within a few short years, Aldrich became a multi-millionaire of powerful influence. He was the father-in-law of John D. Rockefeller, and his grandson, Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, later became Vice President of the United States.

Plans for a central bank had been on the drawing board long before 1900. A complex task of such intricate detail required vast amounts of time and effort to construct; the work performed behind the scenes, out of the public view, waiting for the perfect moment to be unveiled. The sensitive demeanor of public opinion demanded that the subject be revealed in the most convincing and acceptable manner possible, avoiding all suspicion or doubt.

Charles A. Conant provided the initial groundwork for both a central bank and a gold exchange system. From 1902 to 1906, Conant was the treasurer of the Morgan controlled Morton Trust Company of New York. He also worked for the Federal government as one of the three members of Roosevelt’s Commission On International Exchange, and for Brown Brothers Harriman. Conant was the guiding hand behind Mexico’s, Panama’s, and the Philippine’s change from a silver standard to a gold exchange system. China and Cuba were his only failures to convert to a gold standard.

In 1900, the United States, Britain, and Japan intervened in the Boxer Rebellion in China. After hostilities had ended, China was ordered to pay war reparations of $300 million. The United States demanded payment in gold. At the time, China was on a depreciated silver standard and wanted to pay in silver. Fortunately, the Chinese had centuries of experience in monetary affairs, and had learned their lessons well. They knew a ruse when they saw one, refusing to pay in gold. Silver was finally accepted.

Why did the elite money powers push Roosevelt, as well as the rest of the world, away from a silver standard, towards a gold standard? Might it be for the same reasons we have seen our own monetary system flip back and forth from silver to gold?

Our history provides clear evidence that first one metal was over-valued and then the other, creating imbalances in the price structure that could be manipulated in the domestic home market, and then sold abroad in a foreign market, where the rate of exchange was completely different. Gold and silver coins were driven out of circulation several times by the money powers employing these tactics.

Such adjustments in foreign exchange are one of the international banker’s favorite mechanisms to redistribute the wealth of the Nations – the wealth of “We The People”. Often appearing to be surreal, in the fullness of its absurdity – it is, in reality, the very real life game the rulers of the universe live by; and suffer upon the people.

Perhaps this explains the oversight in our bimetallic exchange system, where the price of silver had been fixed as the standard, but the price of gold was allowed to float, providing the means for manipulation and redistribution. Perhaps this explains Jefferson’s “blot”. The evidence has been presented; justice will decide the verdict.

And this was only the beginning of their wealth transference scheme. More cards remained hidden, waiting to be played: the Federal Reserve Act of 1913; the 1922 Genoa Gold Exchange Accord; Roosevelt’s infamous Gold Reserve Act of 1934; the 1944 Bretton Woods Agreement that declared the U.S. Dollar to be the reserve currency of the world; the 1944 creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) and the World Bank (WB) – all to promote a new socialistic world order, by slowly but methodically eliminating gold from world finance; Nixon’s closing of the Gold Window in 1971, which basically amounted to a national declaration of bankruptcy from the United States; and many more acts too numerous to list.

In 1911 the following excerpt appeared in McClure’s Magazine:

“Seven men in Wall Street now control a great share of the fundamental industry and resources of the United States. Three of the seven men, J.P. Morgan, James J. Hill, and George F. Baker, head of the First National Bank of New York belong to the so-called Morgan group; four of them, John D. and William Rockefeller, James Stillman, head of the National City Bank, and Jacob H. Schiff of the private banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb Company, to the so-called Standard Oil City Bank group... the central machine of capital extends its control over the United States... The process is not only economically logical; it is now practically automatic.”


In 1906, Jacob H. Shiff, who was the head of the prestigious banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Company, gave a speech to the New York Chamber of Commerce. His main goal was to stress the urgent need of an elastic currency, issued by a national bank system.

Nonetheless, it was Shiff’s partner at Kuhn, Loeb and Company, Paul M. Warburg, who had planted the seed for a central bank. Schiff and Warburg were elite international bankers from Germany, and both had years of experience with the Central Bank of Germany – the Reichsbank. The time was fast approaching for the fruit to bare witness to the nature of the seed.

George Sylvester Viereck’s book “The Strangest Friendship in History” is about the most unusual relationship between Woodrow Wilson and Colonel Mandell House. Although a private citizen, the Colonel often stayed at The White House, privileged with unlimited access to President Wilson, for whom he unofficially functioned as chief advisor. The following quote sums up a very strange friendship indeed:

“The Schiffs, the Warburgs, the Kahns, the Rockefellers, the Morgans put their faith in House. When the Federal Reserve legislation at last assumed definite shape, House was the intermediary between the White House and the financiers.”

The banking crisis of 1907 added fuel to the fire for a central bank. During the panic, the banks were once again allowed to suspend redemption of bank notes in specie. There was widespread talk and discussion on the need of a central bank to provide support to the banking system, especially during financial panics, as had just occurred.

Congressman Charles Lindbergh, who spent most of his life fighting against the “money trust”, had the following to say while testifying before the Committee on Rules (191l):

“The Aldrich Plan is the Wall Street Plan. It is a broad challenge to the Government by the champion of the Money Trust. It means another panic, if necessary, to intimidate the people. Aldrich, paid by the Government to represent the people, proposes a plan for the trusts instead. It was by a very clever move that the National Monetary Commission was created. In 1907 nature responded most beautifully and gave this country the most bountiful crop it had ever had. Other industries were busy too, and from a natural standpoint all the conditions were right for a most prosperous year. Instead, a panic entailed enormous losses upon us. Wall Street knew the American people were demanding a remedy against the recurrence of such a ridiculously unnatural condition. Most Senators and Representatives fell into the Wall Street trap and passed the Aldrich Vreeland Emergency Currency Bill. But the real purpose was to get a monetary commission which would frame a proposition for amendments to our currency and banking laws, which would suit the Money Trust. The interests are now busy everywhere educating the people in favor of the Aldrich Plan. It is reported that a large sum of money has been raised for this purpose. Wall Street speculation brought on the Panic of 1907. The depositors' funds were loaned to gamblers and anybody the Money Trust wanted to favor. Then when the depositors wanted their money, the banks did not have it. That made the panic.”

Senator Nelson Aldrich pushed the Aldrich-Vreeland Act through Congress in 1908. The main purpose of the bill was to establish a National Monetary Commission to study the prospects of national banking reform, including a central bank and an elastic money supply.

In 1910, Senator Aldrich organized the infamous meeting at Jekyll Island – to construct a plan for a central banking system. The system was introduced as the Aldrich Plan to Congress in 1912. Surprisingly, the bill was defeated. Woodrow Wilson was elected as the Democratic President that same year. Bertie Charles Forbes was a financial writer at the time – he later founded Forbes Magazine. He wrote the following article about the Jekyll Island meeting:

“Picture a party of the nation's greatest bankers stealing out of New York on a private railroad car under cover of darkness, stealthily riding hundred of miles South, embarking on a mysterious launch, sneaking onto an island deserted by all but a few servants, living there a full week under such rigid secrecy that the names of not one of them was once mentioned lest the servants learn the identity and disclose to the world this strangest, most secret expedition in the history of American finance. I am not romancing; I am giving to the world, for the first time, the real story of how the famous Aldrich currency report, the foundation of our new currency system, was written . . . The utmost secrecy was enjoined upon all. The public must not glean a hint of what was to be done. Senator Aldrich notified each one to go quietly into a private car of which the railroad had received orders to draw up on an unfrequented platform. Off the party set. New York's ubiquitous reporters had been foiled . . . Nelson (Aldrich) had confided to Henry (P. Davison, senior partner of J.P. Morgan Company), Frank (Vanderlip, president of the National City Bank of New York), Paul (Warburg) and A. Piatt (Andrew, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, and Special Assistant of the National Monetary Commission) that he was to keep them locked up at Jekyll Island, out of the rest of the world, until they had evolved and compiled a scientific currency system for the United States, the real birth of the present Federal Reserve System, the plan done on Jekyll Island in the conference with Paul, Frank and Henry . . . Warburg is the link that binds the Aldrich system and the present system together. He more than any one man has made the system possible as a working reality.”

Not mentioned by Forbes was Charles D. Norton, president of J.P. Morgan’s First National Bank of New York, and Benjamin Strong, head of J.P. Morgan’s Trust Company. Frank Vanderlip later wrote in his autobiography, “From Farmboy to Financier”:

“Our secret expedition to Jekyll Island was the occasion of the actual conception of what eventually became the Federal Reserve System. The essential points of the Aldrich Plan were all contained in the Federal Reserve Act as it was passed.”

The change from Republican to Democratic control of the White House, affected the Aldrich Plan, as Aldrich was a Republican. Now the plan had to be sold to the Democrats. The elite international bankers called upon Senator Carter Glass to lend his influence and guiding hand. Making very little changes in the actual context of the Aldrich Plan, aside from removing Aldrich’s name from the plan, Glass introduced and passed the Federal Reserve Act in December of 1913. The following news clip on Senator Aldrich, appeared in Harpers Weekly:

“Finance and the tariff are reserved by Nelson Aldrich as falling within his sole purview and jurisdiction. Mr. Aldrich is endeavoring to devise, through the National Monetary Commission, a banking and currency law. A great many hundred thousand persons are firmly of the opinion that Mr. Aldrich sums up in his personality the greatest and most sinister menace to the popular welfare of the United States. Ernest Newman recently said, 'What the South visits on the Negro in a political way, Aldrich would mete out to the mudsills of the North, if he could devise a safe and practical way to accomplish it."


On December 22 the Federal Reserve Act was passed. President Wilson signed the bill on Christmas Eve, the 24th of December 1913. The New York Times carried a front-page article that stated “Prosperity To Be Free”. Congressman Lindbergh had a somewhat different view:

“This Act establishes the most gigantic trust on earth. When the President signs this bill, the invisible government by the Monetary Power will be legalized. The people may not know it immediately, but the day of reckoning is only a few years removed. The trusts will soon realize that they have gone too far even for their own good. The people must make a declaration of independence to relieve themselves from the Monetary Power. This they will be able to do by taking control of Congress. Wall Streeters could not cheat us if you Senators and Representatives did not make a humbug of Congress. . . If we had a people's Congress, there would be stability. The greatest crime of Congress is its currency system. The worst legislative crime of the ages is perpetrated by this banking bill. The caucus and the party bosses have again operated and prevented the people from getting the benefit of their own government.”

Often it is asked, what is the purpose of the Federal Reserve. The original act states:

Federal Reserve Act

To provide for the establishment of Federal reserve banks, to furnish an elastic currency, to afford means of rediscounting commercial paper, to establish a more effective supervision of banking in the United States, and for other purposes.

[Dispersed throughout 12 USC; ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251 December 23, 1913.]

Doesn’t get much clearer than: “other purposes” – whatever the hell that means; kind of leaves it open to the interpretation of a most fertile imagination. Perhaps the article that W.H. Allen wrote in Moody’s Magazine, in 1916 had a clearer perspective:

“The purpose of the Federal Reserve Act was to prevent concentration of money in the New York banks by making it profitable for country bankers to use their funds at home, but the movement of currency shows that the New York banks gained from the interior in every month except December, 1915, since the Act went into effect. The stabilization of rates has taken place in New York alone. In other parts, high rates continue. The Act, which was to deprive Wall Street of its funds for speculation, has really given the bulls and the bears such a supply, as they have never had before. The truth is that far from having clogged the channel to Wall Street, as Mr. Glass so confidently boasted, it actually widened the old channels and opened up two new ones. The first of these leads directly to Washington and gives Wall Street a string on all the surplus cash in the United States Treasury. Besides, in the power to issue bank-note currency, it furnishes an inexhaustible supply of credit money; the second channel leads to the great central banks of Europe, whereby, through the sale of acceptances, virtually guaranteed by the United States Government, Wall Street is granted immunity from foreign demands for gold which have precipitated every great crisis in our history.”

And how is the Federal Reserve supposed to supply an elastic currency. The Act answers that as well:

Federal Reserve Act

SECTION 16—Note Issues

1. Issuance of Federal Reserve Notes; Nature of Obligation; Where Redeemable

Federal reserve notes, to be issued at the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for the purpose of making advances to Federal reserve banks through the Federal reserve agents as hereinafter set forth and for no other purpose, are hereby authorized. The said notes shall be obligations of the United States and shall be receivable by all national and member banks and Federal reserve banks and for all taxes, customs, and other public dues. They shall be redeemed in lawful money on demand at the Treasury Department of the United States, in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, or at any Federal Reserve Bank.

[12 USC 411. As amended by act of Jan. 30, 1934 (48 Stat. 337). For redemption of Federal reserve notes whose bank of issue cannot be identified, see act of June 13, 1933.]

Federal Notes “to be issued by the discretion of the Board of Governors” – would that be the same as whenever they want, however they want, in whatever amount they choose? “Federal Notes to be issued for the purpose of making advances to Federal reserve banks and for no other purposes.” Nice work if you can get it.

And by what policy is the Federal Reserve to attain its stated purpose. Once again, the Act provides a most clear explanation:

Federal Reserve Act

SECTION 2A—Monetary Policy Objectives

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Open Market Committee shall maintain long run growth of the monetary and credit aggregates commensurate with the economy's long run potential to increase production, so as to promote effectively the goals of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.

[12 USC 225a. As added by act of November 16, 1977 (91 Stat. 1387) and amended by acts of October 27, 1978 (92 Stat. 1897); Aug. 23, 1988 (102 Stat. 1375); and Dec. 27, 2000 (114 Stat. 3028).]

One can search the Federal Reserve Act and the United States Code forever without finding a definition of what is meant by: “the economy's long run potential to increase production”, or “to promote effectively the goals of maximum employment”, or “stable prices”, or “moderate long-term interest rates”; and God only knows what it means to “maintain long run growth of the monetary and credit aggregates commensurate with”; and so far He hasn’t chosen to tell us mere mortals.


Others have written on the creation of the Federal Reserve and the monetary history that followed. We will save examining such history in detail for a future work. Suffice it to say that the Genoa Accord, Roosevelt’s Gold Reserve Act, as well as the Bretton Woods Agreement and Nixon’s closing of the gold window – were not any more honest then the earlier gold standards we have examined. If anything, the latter monetary history is more blatantly dishonest and unsound then what had come before.

Such history lends credence to the view that our monetary policy has not evolved, but has instead – devolved. Our present Federal Reserve Notes have become little more than a revolving tax payment voucher, and even that may be too kind. Present Federal Reserve Notes are according to the U.S. Code “redeemable in lawful money”; which implies that our currency is not lawful money, otherwise why would or how could it be, redeemed in lawful money, if it were such to begin with?

Federal Reserve Notes function as the ultimate wealth transference mechanism. When paper obligations of government debt are allowed to circulate as legal tender, the resulting debasement of the currency and loss of purchasing power siphons wealth away from “We The People” who hold and owe the debt, towards the elite few who issue the debt. The tail is wagging the dog.

Even the Federal Reserve admits that the dollar has lost 95% of its purchasing power since 1913, the year it took control – a most infamous distinction for a central banker’s resume. Within 20 years of the Fed’s creation, our economy experienced the most severe financial crisis in history. Neither event seems to be in keeping with its stated purpose: “to establish a more effective supervision of banking in the United States.”

Many believe the Federal Reserve banks are government institutions – they are not. They are private credit monopolies that prey upon the people for the benefit of themselves and their greedy handlers: the international moneychangers. These are the same global money powers that hire lobbyists to garnish votes to control our legislation – for their own special interests; and who maintain international propaganda machines for the purpose of deceiving us into granting new concessions that permit them to cover up their past misdeeds, and to set again in motion the gigantic wheels of wealth transference and bonded debt – the feudal yoke of bondage and servitude.

The would be rulers of the universe would be wise to heed the words of those who yoke and unyoke the horses from the chariots of the gods:

"...a life passed in power and great fortune and
authority needs justice to make it divine;
by injustice it is made bestial."
[Plutarch, Aristides 6.4]

© 2004 Douglas V. Gnazzo